May 1st: Labour Day and May 2nd: Mothers Day - Vulnerable and mature, that is how children whose parents have emigrated are

Cristina Manzanedo, reports responsible in Entreculturas has explained the many different parts of this research. Regarding the emigration impact in the sons and daughters that stay in the country, Cristina Manzanedo emphasizes "the increasing in the vulnerability of boys and girls due to among the children shelter centre, there are some that provide stability but other don't".

In this sense, she explains that, when is the father who emigrates and the mother stays, homes remain stable, but not so when is the mother who emigrates and children stay with their father, who " most of the times is not able to assume mother and father role and has to ask for help to the family". The second more notable consequence is the speed up in the maturity process due to the facts as "many times they will have to assume home and family responsibilities, they gain a bigger autonomy and a bigger maturity with non-univocal effects".

In relation to academic performance the research highlights that marks from students whose fathers have migrated are slightly lower with respect to the average in their level. In this sense, we should add two clarifications: "The first one is about gender, as performance of girls with parents emigrated is even higher than the average and second that due to the longing of parent's emigration. As it is true that during the first and second emigration year the academic performance decreases, as time goes by they recover their level" Manzanedo explains.



(From left to right) Raquel Martín, Sensitization Coordinator of Entreculturas,
Cristina Manzanedo, responsable for the inform in Spain and
Leonor Lucila Fdez., mother of three children living in Bolivia.


The report finishes with the measures taken by the schools in Bolivia in order to handle this issue. If till now school has gone for a compensatory social strategy, that is, it requires the presence of external experts in the school, the report suggests considering emigration from educational field, making the most of the student's life experiences. On the other hand, the research also shows the need of keeping communication between parents and children, on mutual benefit. Finally they have also brought to the table the need to add new family's examples, dealing with emigration not as a problem but as a process, and bearing in mind at the same time education in gender equality, in order to have an impact in the equitable assignation of home duties in the new home.

Leonor Lucila Fernández, Bolivian, mother of two daughters of 22 and years and a son of 15, has explained in first person her process and decision to emigrate from Bolivia to Spain and how she experiences the distance with her children:" It's almost 6 years since I live in Spain without seeing my children, it is a very hard reality not only for parents but also for children." Leonor has also related which has been the process experienced for her children: "They get mature very fast, they talk as adults do. The old one looks after the other ones, she is who takes the family responsibility and the boy sometimes acts as father with the little girl of 9 years".

According to this report, the way to adapt to the situation is easier when parents, despite of distance also collaborate in their children re-adaptation process. "New Technologies are helping the emigrant parents a lot, you have much more time to talk, you can see how they grow, it is economically affordable and you can talk to them every day", Leonor said.